Diagnostic procedures for men
All the diagnostic procedures in our clinic start with a detailed conversation. This conversation is vital for getting an accurate account of the previous infertility situation. All the steps of the diagnostic process (and later the treatment) will be done under the guidance of the same doctor, who already during your first visit in the clinic makes the most informative and economical diagnostic plan for each individual couple.
Semen analysis (Spermogramm)
Male fertility is evaluated through the microscopic study of sperm.
The examination assists us in evaluating the semen's ability to fertilize the oocyte. The quality of the semen has a significant effect on choosing the most appropriate treatment.
For the semen analysis an appointment schold be made at the clinic. It is important that the sample is examined within one hour of having given the sample. The sample may be delivered at the clinic by means of masturbation in a special room designed specifically for this purpose. It may also may be brought from home in a steril samle dish within half an hour of having given the sample. It is important to abstain from ejaculation 2–5 days before coming to the semen analysis. Abstaining from ejaculation for a shorter period of time may influence the sample by reducing sperm density hether abstaining from ejaculation for a longer time increases the number of dead sperm. It is also important to ensure the entire sample goes into the dish because the composition of the semen is different in different stages.
The semen analysis involves examining the amount and quality of the semen, as well as the density of the sperm, the total count, the motility and morphology of the sperm, and the occurrence of other cells and antibodies. All of these factors are significant in evaluating the semen's ability to fertilize the oocyte. The most important factors are the count and motility of the sperm. Different samples of the same person may exhibit notable differences in the count and motility of the sperm. Since sperm quality may change, spermogram may be repeated after a periode of time recommended by your doctor.
Based on the analysis, the semen is classified as follows:
- Normozoospermia: a normal sample
- Oligozoospermia: the density of the sperm is lower than normal
- Asthenozoospermia: the motility of the sperm is less than normal
- Teratozoospermia: more abnormally shaped sperm than normal
- Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: the density, mobility and
proportion of normally shaped sperm is lower than normal
- Azoospermia: no sperm in the semen
- Aspermia: no semen during ejaculation
Semen analyses are not always comparable with each other because different laboratories may use different parameters structurally in relation to normal sperm.
In our clinic the sperm is tested according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). If the sperm count, motility or morphology are reduced artificial insemination, IVF or ICSI may be required. The appropriate treatment method will be individually selected by your doctor after evaluation of diagnostic results of both partners.
MAR-testis recommended by the WHO to evaluate concentration of antisper antibodies in the sperm.
In case of the total absence of sperm cells in sperm (azoospermia), biopsy of the testicular tissue (TESA) may be required to examine sperm production or to get sperm cells for assisted reproductive techniques. With the help of TESA and ICSI procedure men with azoospermia became able to have healthy offsprings.
A low sperm count (below 5 mln/ml) often has genetic causes. A probe of vein blood is enough to identify several genetic disorders. A genetic examination follows a medical genetic consultation